Messinia's privileged location, temperate climate and geomorphology have ranked it among the most agriculturally productive areas in Greece. Since ancient times, Messinia has been famous for its fertile land, and mainly for its valleys, and it remains inextricably linked with agriculture. Numerically speaking, of the 3,000,000 acres in total that comprise the area of Messinia, the croplands cover 43% or approximately 1.1 million acres. Of the above croplands, 13% is arable, 3% horticultural land, 6% vines, 68% tree crops and 10% is non-cultivated.

The agricultural production in Messinia has participated with a significant production share in all strategically important products of the country across all periods. Significant quantities of rice, tobacco, currants, figs, citrus, olives, and vegetables were produced in Messinia and continue to do so; the "king" of them all is, of course, the olive oil, one of the most significant products in the area's agricultural economy, already since Mycenaean times. 

Visiting Messinia today, one easily registers that olive oil is considered to be the main local product, famous for its exceptional quality: Endless, thick olive groves ‒ they comprise 85% of tree crops and 58% of farmland ‒, olive mills, and areas where the visitor can observe the unique production process of the "liquid gold," and also taste it; it all testifies to the great importance of olive oil for local society. 

Also significant are products such as vinegar, honey, molasses, dairy products (feta and sfela cheese ‒ the so-called "cheese of fire"), cold meats, pasteli (a confection made with sesame seed and honey), and also Messinian wines. Equally important is the increase of organic farmers in recent years, who have reached approximately 788, with 32,424 acres of total cultivable land.